Programming: Languages:

# ## Keywords

 asm else new this auto enum operator throw bool explicit private true break export protected typedef catch false register typeid char float reinterpret_cast typename class for return union conts friend short unsigned const_cast goto signed using continue if sizeof virtual default inline static void delete int static_cast volatile do long struct wchar_t double mutable switch while dynamic_cast namespace template

## Arithmetic Operators

Just like mathematics, C++ has several arithmetic operators that you can use for computation. They are:

C++ Arithmetic Operators
Operator Meaning Example Outcome
+ Add x, y  = 3,  4
z = x + y
z is equal to 7
- Subtract x, y = 3, 4
z = x - y;
z is equal to -1
* Multiply x, y = 3, 4
z = x * y
z is equal to 12
/ Divide x, y = 6, 2
z = x / y
z is equal to 3
% Modulus x, y = 5, 3
z = x % y
z is equal to 2
** Exponent x, y = 2, 3
z = x ** y
z is equal to 8
// Floor Division x, y = 20, 12
z = x // y
z is equal to 1

There are a couple of these operators that need some explanation. First the modulus operator will return the remainder for a division problem.

• 10 % 3 results in 1 be case 10 / 3 = 3 with a remainder of 1
• 12 % 7 results in 5 Because 12 / 7 = 1 with a remainder of 5

The floor division operator gives a division of a number where the numbers after the decimal point are truncated.

• 15 // 4 is 3 because 4 goes into 15 three times; the remainder is truncated.

## Escape Characters

The following table is a complete list of escape characters that can be used to format strings.

 Character Description \a Bell \b Backspace \Cx Control-x \e Escape \f Formfeed \M-\C-x Meta-Control-x \n Newline \r Carriage Return \s Space \t Tab \v Vertical Tab \x Character x \xnn Hexadecimal notation. Where n is in the range of 0-9, a-f or A-F

## Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators in C++
Operator Meaning Example
& Bitwise AND x& y = 0 (`0000 0000`)
| Bitwise OR x | y = 14 (`0000 1110`)
~ Bitwise NOT ~x = -11 (`1111 0101`)
^ Bitwise XOR x ^ y = 14 (`0000 1110`)
>> Bitwise right shift x>> 2 = 2 (`0000 0010`)
<< Bitwise left shift x<< 2 = 40 (`0010 1000`)