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Introduction to C++

 

Keywords

C++ Keywords
asm else new this
auto enum operator throw
bool explicit private true
break export protected typedef
catch false register typeid
char float reinterpret_cast typename
class for return union
conts friend short unsigned
const_cast goto signed using
continue if sizeof virtual
default inline static void
delete int static_cast volatile
do long struct wchar_t
double mutable switch while
dynamic_cast namespace template  

Arithmetic Operators

Just like mathematics, C++ has several arithmetic operators that you can use for computation. They are:

C++ Arithmetic Operators
Operator Meaning Example Outcome
+ Add x, y  = 3,  4
z = x + y
z is equal to 7
- Subtract x, y = 3, 4
z = x - y;
z is equal to -1
* Multiply x, y = 3, 4
z = x * y
z is equal to 12
/ Divide x, y = 6, 2
z = x / y
z is equal to 3
% Modulus x, y = 5, 3
z = x % y
z is equal to 2
** Exponent x, y = 2, 3
z = x ** y
z is equal to 8
// Floor Division x, y = 20, 12
z = x // y
z is equal to 1

There are a couple of these operators that need some explanation. First the modulus operator will return the remainder for a division problem.

  • 10 % 3 results in 1 be case 10 / 3 = 3 with a remainder of 1
  • 12 % 7 results in 5 Because 12 / 7 = 1 with a remainder of 5

The floor division operator gives a division of a number where the numbers after the decimal point are truncated.

  • 15 // 4 is 3 because 4 goes into 15 three times; the remainder is truncated.

Escape Characters

The following table is a complete list of escape characters that can be used to format strings.

C++ Escape Characters
Character Description
 \a  Bell 
 \b  Backspace
 \Cx  Control-x
 \e  Escape
 \f  Formfeed
 \M-\C-x  Meta-Control-x
 \n  Newline
\r  Carriage Return
\s  Space
\t  Tab
\v  Vertical Tab
\x  Character x 
\xnn  Hexadecimal notation. Where n is in the range of 0-9, a-f or A-F

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators in C++
Operator Meaning Example
& Bitwise AND x& y = 0 (0000 0000)
| Bitwise OR x | y = 14 (0000 1110)
~ Bitwise NOT ~x = -11 (1111 0101)
^ Bitwise XOR x ^ y = 14 (0000 1110)
>> Bitwise right shift x>> 2 = 2 (0000 0010)
<< Bitwise left shift x<< 2 = 40 (0010 1000)